Pilyava is a village located in Starosinyavskiy district, Khmelnitskiy region of Ukraine. Kozelets is located on the Ikva River, a tributary of the Southern Bug. The villag’s estimated population is 672 (as of 2001).

Pilyava became a part of Russia Empire in 1793, in XIX – beginning of XX century it was shtetl of Litin Yezd of Podolskaya Gubernia.

Known since 1501. In the XVI-XVIII centuries Pilyava was a part of Commonwealth, since 1793 – in the Russian Empire. In the XIX – early XX it was a shtetl of Litin County town in Podolsk province. Population according to 2001 census – 672 persons.

Near the village take place great Battle of Pyliavtsi (September 23, 1648) was the third significant battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces met a numerically superior force of Cossacks and Crimean Tatars under the command of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Tugay Bey. The Commonwealth forces were dealt a third consecutive defeat.

In 1889 there were 2 synagogues. In 1890 Rabbi was Moshe Shrayman (1861 -?).

Castle in Pilyava. Engraving by 1864
Castle in Pilyava. Engraving by 1864

In the summer of 1913 in Pilyava worked Jewish folklore-ethnographic expedition of S.An-skiy. In 1914, Jews owned the only stock of pharmaceutical goods, the only mill, the only store of wines, 12 stores (including all 9 groceries, both manufactories). In 1913 there was 3 synagogues.