Zhashkov

זאשקאוו (Yiddish), Zaszkow (Polish), Жашків (Ukrainian), Жашков (Russian)

Zhashkov is a historic city, founded in 1636 and located in the Cherkassy region of central Ukraine and the center of Zhashkov district. The city’s estimated population is 14,116 (as of 2014). Zhashkov is approx. 64 km from Uman, 160 km from Kiev and about 78 km from Talne.

The town became a part of the Russian Empire in 1793 after the third Partition of Poland.

Before the Revolution of 1917, it was a shtetl of the Tarasha uyezd, Kiev Guberniya.

Beginning

The Jewish community of Zhashkiv was first mentioned in the state archives in the 17th century, with several Jewish innkeepers, distilleries and mill owners.

In 1863, there were 556 Jews, 1,533 Orthodox Christians and 52 Roman Catholics. In 1897, the Jewish population of Zhashkiv grew to 2,445 residents (47,2%).

In the late 19th century, Joel Kelmanovich Tilchinskiy set up a mill, manufacturing sugar out of sugar beets, and operated a brewery and a distillery. By 1865, a Jewish prayer house was already open in the city, and by the early 20th century three synagogues had been constructed.

Map of Zhashkiv, early XX century